Wanna support sustainable development and save a species in style? Buy caiman-skin accessories!

For years, reptile skin accessories have been a staple in high fashion. From snakeskin boots to alligator skin purses, western culture has grown enamored with using these scaly critters to look good, and for good reason; you can actually wear an apex predator on your feet! But what if I told you that buying those $1500 pair of reptile skin boots could actually help with conservation efforts and boost rural sustainable development? A paper recently published in the journal Biological Conservation outlines how the sustainable use of certain species can actually benefit both the species and humans.

Researchers from the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, studied the South American market for caiman, a close relative of alligators and crocodiles (Gelabert, Rositano, & González, 2017). Caiman, like many other reptiles, are sought out for their skin, which can be made into boots, bags, and other accessories.

Caiman populations suffered tremendously from illegal poaching in the mid 1900s, which instigated national and international regulations regarding caiman poaching. By the end of the 1900s, illegal trading of caiman was in decline. In response, the Argentine government enacted caiman ranching farms to control the population. The purpose of the farms was to sustain caiman populations by harvesting wild eggs, and releasing the hatchlings to grow in either their native habitat or a more controlled environment, thereby increasing the number of caiman reaching adulthood. Adult caiman could then be harvested and sold for their skin.

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Caiman in Argentina faced extinction due to poaching until recent sustainability measures were enacted. “Caiman” by Deb Shepard is licensed under CC 2.0

Initial ranches were able to start through government subsidies and investment by private investors. Egg collecting became a common practice, whereby individuals could bring caiman eggs to ranchers to be compensated. Ranchers were responsible for monitoring the animals, occasionally feeding them and ensuring they were healthy. Local inhabitants were also incentivized to support the caiman ranches; any individual who found and reported a nest was monetarily compensated. And above all else, given that the government now has a bigger stake in the ranches, management of the farms, caiman poaching, and illegal trading are all now much more heavily regulated.

Twenty years later, the ranching system still works due to simple economics. Recently, some landowners gave their land to ranchers for use as caiman farms. The landowners stated they don’t find it important to gain anything financially from lending out their land; simply being part of the conservation effort gives them enough positive publicity for it to be beneficial to them.

Avery McGaha works as program director at Green River Preserve and has worked on numerous conservation projects during his years in the field. “Understanding the group of stakeholders is crucial to making any big conservation plan a success”, he stated when asked about the effectiveness of large-scale conservation efforts. “Stakeholder mapping is a really important early step for any kind of species conservation that has both private and public land or interest involved.”

By incentivizing public and private stakeholders to work towards a common goal, the Argentine government has been able to effectively transform a once illegal, black market product into a sustainable commodity that not only benefits the species but also boosts the economy.

Skeptics of this “sustainable ranching” argue that there is limited applicability of this system, and while caiman may not be a feasible choice for most areas (including Texas), there are tons of other species where this system could be utilized. One such species is the bighorn sheep, whose horns can be sold on the black market for tens-of-thousands of dollars. Sustainable ranching of these sheep could help drastically reduce the rates of illegal poaching while providing new economic opportunity to ranchers.

Argentina has set the precedent for how to transform an endangered species into an economic opportunity. By providing incentives to the private parties involved, the Argentine government was able to effectively evoke public support for a national conservation movement. Implementation of similar conservation strategies worldwide could help protect thousands of endangered species around the world that currently face extinction. So the next time you see those reptile skin boots you’ve always dreamed of buying, think about how sustainability could actually make purchasing those boots a lot cheaper and a lot less environmentally harmful!

 

References:

Gelabert, C., Rositano, F., & González, O. (2017). Sustainable use of caiman in Argentina: An analysis from the perspective of the stakeholders involved. Biological Conservation, 212, 357-365.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2017.06.012

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Owls in Melbourne: Protecting Apex Predators in the City

By Matthew Miller

By 2045 about 6 billion people will live in the world’s cities, and alongside this urban growth must come huge losses of natural habitat.1 What does this mean for wildlife? Often, urbanization will wipe animal populations out – but with proper urban planning and conservation policies, some species can survive and even thrive in the city life.

In a study published in Biological Conservation, Nick Bradsworth and colleagues of Deakin and Monash Universities focus on an apex predator that has great potential for surviving in cities: the powerful owl (Ninox strenua). Using data collected in Melbourne, Australia, the researchers created a model to predict where in this city exists good owl habitat. Urban planners can, and should, use these results to protect pockets of owl habitat, thus protecting the powerful owl even in the face of urban expansion.

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The powerful owl, Australia’s largest owl. “Powerful Owl, ANBG” by Duncan McCaskill is licensed under CC BY-NC 2.0.

The powerful owl is Australia’s largest owl species and lives both in forests and on the edges of cities like Melbourne.2 As a top predator, the bird is especially important ecologically. (It’s also especially adorable!). Coauthor Dr. John White reported to the Sydney Morning Herald that “where you have good predator populations, you usually have a more diverse prey population.” This means that protecting a predator like the owl can positively impact an entire ecosystem.

To understand the owl’s distribution and give useful information to city planners, the researchers made a model that uses information about the landscape to predict what parts of Melbourne are good owl habitat. They took information on the city’s terrain, compiled data on owl sightings throughout Melbourne, and ran it all through a software program. One set of data, from the “Melbourne Powerful Owl Project,” consisted entirely of ordinary citizens’ owl sightings.2 Hooray for crowdsourced science!

Perhaps not surprisingly, the model showed that areas covered by forest or right next to a river were key areas of owl habitat.2 Tree density and distance to the nearest river were also important. Bradsworth et al. used the completed model to produce a detailed map of possible owl habitat in the Melbourne area.

However, the authors didn’t immediately put their full faith in their model. To prove its accuracy, they tagged five powerful owls with GPS loggers and studied their movements. The model held up: 95.9% of reported GPS points were within habitat predicted by the model!2

To see what their results meant for protecting owls, Bradsworth and colleagues cross referenced their GPS data with maps of nature reserves in the greater Melbourne area. They found that much of the land used by owls is not protected as part of a reserve. This underscores the importance of intelligent city planning as Melbourne expands. Powerful owls need undeveloped land within the city for habitat, and unless some of that habitat is protected, the owls of Melbourne may disappear. The model and map made by Bradsworth is an enormously useful tool that the city can use to choose which areas to protect.

Naysayers may claim that preserving enough habitat for powerful owls in a vast city is impossible. However, the reality is that relatively small pockets of protected land are all you need. Cities like Melbourne have an unusually high density of possums, which means city owls do not need to travel far from roosting locations to find food.2 If a moderate amount land in the right places is protected, the powerful owl will be able to hold its own.

The powerful owl is just one of many important and fascinating species that has the potential to thrive in urban areas. By studying how and where such animals survive, we can plan urban development so that they still have the land they need. Ultimately, there’s no reason why humans and animals can’t enjoy the city life side by side.

 

Works Cited:

1 United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/352). https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/publications/files/wup2014-highlights.Pdf

2 Bradsworth, Nick, White, John G., Isaac, Bronwyn, and Cooke, Raylene. ” Species distribution models derived from citizen science data predict the fine scale movements of owls in an urbanizing landscape.” Biological Conservation 213 (2017) 27-35. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320717306092?via%3Dihub

 

 

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Predator Prey Relations: Changing Driving as We Know It

What do you think of as the quintessential American road trip sight? Many might suggest the Grand Canyon or the Rocky Mountains, or even the giant ball of yarn out in Kansas. However, one sight that everyone sees, but seems to notice, is the neon yellow diamond that depicting a leaping buck. Almost every American living outside of the city has seen one of these animals, and many of us have had a close call with these creatures while driving at night. One potential solution to this problem takes us back to the roots of conservationism. Bringing back cougars in certain areas to control deer populations could reduce how frequently we run into them on the roads.

White-tail deer are one of the most common animals we see in North America. As humans have built cities and changed the environment, many species faced habitat loss. Until modern times, deer were kept in check by their natural predators, such as the cougar. The cougar’s range spread across America, from the pine forests of the Southeast to the west coast. As human expansion reduced their habitat, cougar populations fell. This loss of a key predator allowed deer populations to balloon. All these deer disrupt up the balance of the ecosystem, but the more noticeable impact for many Americans is how often they stand in the road or dash out in front of our cars. Deer collisions in America have risen dramatically over time, leading to hundreds of deaths and injuries, and millions in annual cost (Gilbert).

Researches Gilbert, et al. have studied one proposed solution to the deer situation we find ourselves in through their article “Socioeconomic Benefits of Large Carnivore Recolonization Through Reduced Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions”. In an effort to reestablish cougar populations across the US and restore a vital predator to the ecosystem, conservation efforts have placed cougars in currently viable habitats within their historic range. Many of these populations have become established and are now a normal part of that area’s ecosystem. Gilbert et al. studied the correlation between the population of deer and frequency of car accidents involving them, especially in ranges now lacking cougars. They suspected that having these cougars actively preying upon deer in the area would help ecosystem stability and benefit humans by lowering the number of collisions with deer.

Researchers looked at the birth and death rates of populations of white-tailed deer in various regions and simulated the effects of cougar predation. They considered 75% of the deer killed by cougars would replace other causes of deer death, namely car crashes. They also calculated how many cougars would be needed in a given area on average to have a significant effect on deer populations. They also looked at cougar communities in South Dakota in order to examine a real life scenario. These cougar populations were reintroduced in the 1990’s, helping them establish a control group.

One concern that has been raised about cougars being brought back to areas where they were driven out is the danger they can pose to humans. However, “In the United States and Canada, there were 153 confirmed cougar attacks and 21 human fatalities from 1890 to 2008” (Gilbert). While there are relatively few cougar attacks, there are a shockingly high number of deer collisions. These researchers say that the number of car accidents avoided in areas with cougars far trumps the number of cougar attacks. People in the US spend over $1.66 billion on costs ranging from auto repair to increased insurance costs because of deer accidents. Introducing cougars to control deer could provide great benefit to the public, as well as helping the ecosystems we all live within.

Cougars have been a big part of ecosystems in America for a long time. Now, the effects from their loss can be seen in our forests and on our roadways. Reintroducing cougars not only a boon to biodiversity, but may just make American roadways a lot safer.

Image:

Creative Commons Habitat and Deer Crossing Sign by Forest Starr & Kim Starr CC BY 3.0

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Parrying Pessimism Towards Resource Management Gets Harder as Climate Warms

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Agroforestry in Lubuk Beringin village” by Tri Saputro/CIFOR is licensed under CC BY-NC

Climate change undoubtedly poses a threat to biodiversity today, but by managing our natural resources and ecosystems efficiently we can combat these effects. However, management systems will need stronger support as climate change makes attaining effective management even more difficult.

Most everyone knows the look that gets passed around when climate change and the biodiversity crisis get brought up around those who aren’t too familiar or passionate about the subject. The look says that there are more pressing issues to deal with or that it doesn’t affect them or even that it’s such a big problem that there’s little use in trying to stop it. We may pass the milestone of 2/3 of natural wildlife lost by 2020 according to World Wildlife Fund’s 2016 Living Planet Report, so what can we do? While this attitude can be frustrating on a casual basis, it can be dangerous among those with the power to influence how (or if) our resources are managed. But if management is so important and effective, why do those who oversee it not wholly support it?

Dr. Peter J. Mumby from University of Queensland, Australia and colleagues try to answer this question in their article in Global Change Biology. They discuss actions that need to be taken in order to combat the pessimism currently affecting management regimes.

This pessimism exists for many reasons, a main one being the apparent failure of management. For example, preserving the biodiversity of coral reefs is a gargantuan effort that already involves billions of dollars in management. According to Lauren Howe-Kerr, a graduate student in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at Rice University, “Coral reefs are one of the most biodiverse and productive ecosystems in the world, and the economy of many small tropical countries depend on their existence,” and protecting them is of utmost importance. However, when mass bleaching events due to extreme temperatures occur, even heavily managed systems are affected. Mumby and his colleagues say people, only seeing a decline in reef health, often consider these managed systems “failures” even though they’re generally better off than locations that are not managed.

So how can management regimes prove their effectiveness? The article answers by describing how management can deal with the unique challenges climate change poses to proving their worth. The first obstacle they must tackle is surprise. While climate change is a so-called ‘predictable surprise,’ much can be done to better our ability to respond to local stressors. To do this, we must break down communication barriers between scientists and legislators and create flexible plans to react to sudden changes like important fish populations dying off or moving. The article compares it to emergency response training with protocols in place to deal with extreme scenarios and their victims’ reactions.

Another problem they face is when, instead of resisting change, management might actually have to facilitate it. As extreme effects of climate change persist, extreme and even controversial efforts to combat them may be crucial. For example, to prevent the extinction of certain species due to temperature changes, populations might have to be introduced by humans to different habitats. In the case of declining oysters in one habitat, the article posits that it might be necessary to risk the biodiversity of the habitat by introducing non-native species of oysters. The final challenge lies in using management tools successfully to develop support for these systems. They must work harder to convince the public to consider the relative success of current resource management and the overall value of ecosystem services.

Management is not an end-all be-all solution. As long as major contributors to global climate change continue their efforts in producing greenhouse gases, destroying habitats, and otherwise disrupting ecosystem processes instead of curbing their influence, biodiversity loss and similar disasters will continue to occur and prove management ineffective in the face of such an insurmountable crisis.

Pessimism towards management is pervasive and the road to addressing it is hard. By managing local resources effectively with flexible, innovative, and valued systems that communicate directly with decision-makers, though, we can hope to put the brakes on the damage done by climate change. Take away those efforts, and we will see a free fall to our collective demise.

 

References

Mumby PJ, Sanchirico JN, Broad K, et al. Avoiding a crisis of motivation for ocean management under global environmental change. Glob Change Biol. 2017;00:1–14. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13698

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Indigenous Cultural Practices Missing in Many Ecological Restoration Efforts

In June 2015, a New Zealand tribal leader harvested five Keruru, a bird of deep cultural significance for the indigenous Maori people…and was arrested in the name of ecological restoration. The Keruru, in addition to other native nongame birds, is protected from harvesting under national law. But when ecological restoration means indigenous people arrested for traditional practices dating back 40,000 years or more, we cannot help but question whose interests are represented in mainstream restoration efforts.

Amidst debates surrounding the arrest and broader questions of the relationship between indigenous practices and ecological restoration, Dr. Priscilla M. Wehi and Dr. Janice M. Lord of the University of Otago, in New Zealand, sought to investigate how cultural use of resources has been incorporated into restoration projects throughout Australia and worldwide. Their study, published in the journal Conservation Biology, found that many restoration projects do not consider cultural values or indigenous use of natural resources.

Wehi and Lord used a few different methods to reach their conclusion. With the Keruru case as a point of departure, they investigated inconsistencies between threat status, game status, and importance for cultural harvesting among tribally valued bird species. For example, out of two species which hold cultural significance and aren’t classified as threatened, one can be legally harvested while the other cannot. This sanction disregards the indigenous harvesting practices which existed long before colonialists came and began creating national legislation.

The authors then looked at how award-winning restoration projects from Australia and New Zealand incorporated community involvement into their goals and priorities. While all projects mentioned restored areas might be used for recreation and education, less than half of the projects in Australia and none in New Zealand considered the utilitarian and economic value of natural resources. Not considering the economic uses of natural resources – medicine, food, weaving, firewood, to name a few – means not considering the significance of natural areas for their indigenous communities.

Expanding the scope of their research beyond New Zealand, Wehi and Lord investigated how often terms related to cultural resource use came up in scientific literature about restoration. Of the 3907 articles they found on restoration ecology, only 891 referenced cultural values or indigenous people. And of those, many did not explicitly mention cultural values or harvesting in their abstracts. While the number of articles written about restoration ecology has increased significantly over the past couple decades, the number which include cultural values has increased at a much slower rate.

The overall finding of the article, that many restoration projects do not consider indigenous values and resource use, is especially problematic because many indigenous group identities are strongly linked to the natural environment. Restoration projects which do not allow for traditional resource use put indigenous communities at risk of losing their cultures and languages. Dr. Andrea Ballestero, an anthropology professor from Rice University who has studied indigenous perceptions of resource management, believes “conservation biology faces an exciting challenge”. This challenge, she explains, “is to learn how to think with and through indigenous cosmologies as we work on conservation issues.” To ensure that conservation efforts best serve the interests of indigenous communities requires attention to the differences in worldview between indigenous knowledge systems and Western scientific practices.

To be sure, it may not be easy nor seem immediately cost-effective to put such deliberate effort into understanding and supporting the indigenous cultural values and practices at stake. However, working with local communities and instating community-level management practices has much to offer the field of conservation. The intimate human-nature connection often present in indigenous cultures means that many ecosystems today have been shaped by their long-standing interactions with local communities. Restoration projects often overlook how indigenous interaction with natural resources may be integral to restoring ecosystem function.

Wehi and Lord strongly suggest that cultural values be built into future restoration projects. Such projects will be much more successful if they have community support, and gaining support requires legislation which doesn’t disrupt traditional human-nature relationships. Additionally, the traditional ecological knowledge of indigenous communities has a lot to offer for the development of effective restoration and conservation strategies. After all, these communities have sustainably managed their natural resources for thousands of years.

Reference:

Wehi, P. M. and Lord, J. M. (2017), Importance of including cultural practices in ecological restoration. Conservation Biology, 31: 1109–1118. doi:10.1111/cobi.12915

Link for featured image: “New Zealand Lake Taupo Maori” is by QFSE Media and licensed under CC 3.0

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More Traffic Trouble for Frogger

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Hyla arborea” by Eran Finkle is licensed under CC by 2.0

If you are familiar with the popular arcade game Frogger, you already know that car traffic is hazardous to frogs attempting to cross the street.  What you may not know is that a recent study published about tree frogs has shown that the noise pollution caused by road traffic also has a hazardous effect on nearby frogs.  In the study Effects of traffic noise on tree frog stress levels, immunity, and color signaling (published in Conservation Biology), Mathieu Troianowski and colleagues of Lyon University examine how noise pollution sources, particularly from road traffic, affect the European tree frog.  

To study the effect of traffic noise on these frogs, the team of scientists decided to track the levels of a particular stress hormone in the frogs during prolonged exposure to prerecorded traffic sounds.  This hormone is frequently used to measure stress responses in all sorts of animals.  During short intervals, an increase in stress hormones can be beneficial because it influences the animal’s behavior, metabolism, and energy allocation to help it survive in emergency situations (like boosting the animal’s speed to keep it from becoming lunch!)  However, under chronic stress, these increased stress levels can last for several weeks, which can be detrimental to an organism by taking away important resources from its immune and reproductive systems.

Effects that the hormone is known to have on the immune system include a reduction in the activity and lifespan of the defensive cells that help organisms fight off disease.  It is also known to lower the amount of white blood cells circulating throughout the body and reduce the number of these cells at inflammation sites.  

Increased levels of the stress hormone can also affect orange-red colorations caused by specific pigments.  These pigments also have functions in the immune system, and need to be obtained from food (vertebrates cannot synthesize the pigments themselves).  As it is a limited resource, increased stress levels may divert more of these pigments to the immune system, consequently decreasing the coloration of the animal and making it appear paler.  For male European tree frogs, paler is not better during the mating game.  The bright coloration of the males’ vocal sacs is used by females to select the best mate. This means that increased stress levels can also interfere with reproduction by changing which males the females prefer.

The results of the study showed that frogs exposed to traffic noise pollution had higher stress hormone levels than the frogs in the control group, which did not have a significant change from their starting levels of the hormone.  The study directly measured two consequences of these higher hormone levels.  First, the frogs exposed to traffic noise had decreased immune responses and were less able to fight off an infection compared to the control group.  Second, the vocal sacs of frogs in the test groups were significantly paler by the end of the study.  

What does this mean?  Unlike in the game Frogger, no frogs died during this study.  However, the findings suggest that with less disease resistance and with interference in mate selection, frog populations near roadways could be in jeopardy.  This means noise pollution may have a more significant effect on wildlife than was previously thought.  Decreases in immune responses and reproductive ability could have serious ramifications for not only the European tree frog, but for other animals as well.

Although similar studies need to be conducted on different species, reducing noise pollution would certainly be beneficial for these tree frogs and likely many other species as well.  George Wittemyer, associate professor in the Department of Fish, Wildlife and Conservation Biology at Colorado State University, is familiar with the topic of human noise invasion and has commented, “the most important next step is for people to get out and pay attention to the noise levels….Once we recognize the value of the natural soundscape, we can work much harder to protect it.”  These findings present a new challenge to conservationists, to not only protect the natural landscape, but the natural soundscape as well.

 

Works Cited

Troïanowski, M., Mondy, N., Dumet, A., Arcanjo, C. and Lengagne, T. (2017), Effects of traffic noise on tree frog stress levels, immunity, and color signaling. Conservation Biology, 31: 1132–1140. doi:10.1111/cobi.12893

Dilonardo, Mary Jo. “Human Noise Is Invading Our Parks.” Mother Nature Network, 8 May 2017

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How Sea-ing Lights is Threatening Seabirds

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“The seabird is an animal directly affected by light pollution”

“RM4_1012_1318s” by Ryan Murphy is licensed under CC 2.0

Artificial lights are a big part of our culture, from just getting around to Friday night football games, but have you ever stopped to think about how these lights might affect animals? Would it be a surprise to you to find out that our artificial light systems wreak silent havoc on animals all around the world? Believe it or not, light pollution has become a big threat to biodiversity today, and researchers are dedicating their lives to understanding and saving animals from this everyday threat. Read on, because you’re important in these efforts.

Seabirds are of particular interest when it comes to light pollution. When seabirds see lights at night, they become disoriented and are forced to land, a process biologists call “grounding.” They cannot extract themselves from the light, and will circle around it for hours until they fall over due to exhaustion. This causes mass fatality events and reaps large negative consequences for these threatened birds. Since this issue is a growing threat, taking this conservation problem seriously and urging our public and local governments to reduce light pollution is vital.

Seabird grounding due to lights has been a well-known phenomenon for many years, but the reasons for this attraction have not been well-studied. One hypothesis is that the birds perceive the artificial light as a source of food, since baby birds cannot distinguish between the light and their natural bioluminescent food. Another hypothesis is that artificial lights drown out the natural lighting from the moon and stars, and seabirds lose their navigational cues and bump into light posts and other objects and are forced to ground. Biologists want to understand why artificial lights have impacts on seabirds in order to guide important conservation efforts.

I know you might still be thinking: this seems silly, are birds stranded at light posts actually a big problem for conservation biologists? A study published in the journal of Conservation Biology by Dr. Rodriguez and colleagues of Doñana Biological Station works to understand the impact of artificial lights on seabird species by reviewing several different studies. Throughout 14 land-based studies, researchers found way more fatalities in fledglings compared to adult birds. Fledglings are extremely vulnerable to light pollution, and as expert Jennifer Wheeler from BirdsCaribbean emphasized, “it’s a tragic fact that large numbers of fledglings of [seabirds] never complete their first flight to sea…. [due to] anthropogenic lighting.” For example, one of the studies by Corre from University of Reunion that was mentioned in the article analyzed 4-year long data from the Reunion Island in France and found that 94% of grounded birds from two different species of seabirds were fledglings. They predicted that the proportion of fledglings lost to light attraction on this island is 40%, a concerning figure that expert Dr. Wheeler says can have population-level effects.

Critics might say that this light issue is small when compared to other problems, and we must focus efforts on other issues like habitat loss or invasive species instead. However, problems such as climate change take a very long time to fix and involve years of recovery, while light pollution has a much easier fix. For example, dimming lights during fledgling season is more than enough to enhance survival of young birds that would have otherwise gotten disoriented and grounded. As such, saving this population of vulnerable seabirds will hopefully be enough to level out the population or have it slowly increase in the face of other threats, which is a great step forward when it comes to conserving endangered species.

Clearly, seabird populations benefit greatly from artificial light reduction. It may seem that conservation issues are reserved for experts, but this light pollution problem is one that has been fixed by regular citizens like you. Yuki Reiss, a biologist who works for Kaua’i Seabird Habitat Conservation Program, says her community’s outreach has “caused [football games] to be played during the day in [this] region” because the artificial lights during football games caused a lot of seabird fallout problems. This proves that when we know about an issue from an animal’s perspective, we have the power to talk to our local governments about things like light pollution, raise awareness, and potentially save the seabirds.

Works Cited:

Corre, ML., Ollivier A., Ribes S., Jouventin P. “Light-induced mortality of petrels: a 4-year study from Réunion Island.” Biological Conservation, vol. 105, 2002 pp 93-102. http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.rice.edu/science/article/pii/S0006320701002075?via%3Dihub

Rodriguez, A., Holmes, N.D. et al. “Seabird mortality induced by land-based artificial lights.” Conservation Biology, vol. 31, 2017 pp. 986-1001. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/cobi.12900/full

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